Macadamia has a promising market prospect, with good ecological and economic benefits. It is an edible nut with high oil content, rich nutrition and unique flavor. The global market demand for macadamia is more than 400,000 tons, but due to its strong growth in light, heat, water, wind and other natural conditions, and a long investment cycle, the global planting area is only 40,000 hectares, mainly in Hawaii and Australia, the annual output is less than 30,000 tons. Therefore, the development of macadamia nut cultivation has great market potential and broad market prospects.
Macadamia is a tropical and subtropical high-end economic crop, with strong adaptability. It is suitable to be planted in hills or flat land below 1200 meters above sea level. The highest temperature of the planting area in summer generally does not exceed 35°C, the highest temperature in winter is not less than 15°C, and the lowest temperature is not less than 0°C. There should be no frost or should be only occasional light frost all year round. The soil pH of the planting area should be 5.0 to 6.0.
Macadamia nuts are extremely sensitive to moisture. They should not be short of water from flowering to maturity, especially during the accumulation period of fruit oil, otherwise it will seriously reduce the quality and yield of nuts. Therefore, macadamia nuts are suitable for planting in areas with an annual rainfall of 1000-2000 mm. The planting area should also have good irrigation and drainage conditions.
Because the tree has a dense canopy, shallow root system and is not wind-resistant, the orchard should be located in a place where strong winds are not frequent. Windbreak forest belts should be built in areas vulnerable to typhoons. Bamboo and branches should be used for support during the young tree stage.
Good varieties are characterized by vigorous plant growth, wind resistance, drought tolerance, high yield, high quality, well-proportioned crown, upright, and strong branches. The average plant yield in the abundance period is 25 kg to 50 kg or more, the seed size is medium, the seed kernel rate is 30% to 50%, and the first grade kernel accounts for about 98%.
Planting should avoid drought, rainy and high-temperature seasons, and plant in the early or late rainy season to facilitate plant recovery and growth. The planting density varies with soil conditions and variety types. Most macadamia nuts have a high degree of self-infertility, so the planted varieties should be cross-matched (different varieties are alternately planted), and at least two varieties should be matched on a piece of land.
After planting, the seedlings should be watered frequently to keep the soil moist; after 2 months, the seedlings can be fertilized according to the growth of the seedlings, which should be applied thinly and diligently. The seedlings should be fertilized after the first new shoots are harvested and mature. During the first three years after the trees are planted, except for the extremely vigorous growth of the top buds, which need to be cut off and cut off the low hanging branches, they are naturally formed without pruning.